Category Archives: Engineering

Katakana and Hiragana Worksheet

Download Katakana worksheet to practice

PDF format:kanaworksheet

Excel format: kanaworksheet


Changing company name in

To change the name of company for which is licensed, use following steps:

  • Open registry by running Regedit
  • Scroll down through the displayed lists and expand STAADPro
  • Select 2007 (20.07.10 for STAAD.Pro SS5 or 20.07.11 for STAAD.Pro SS6)
  • Double Click on Username
  • Enter your desired Company name as shown in attached screen capture.

Some Tips For Scientific Writing

Vocabulary for Explaining trends

Increasing trend: went up, climbed, jumped, rose

Decreasing trend: went down, dropped, plummeted, slumped

Constant: remain steady, stable, plateau

List of Adjectives

Salient; Significant

Size, amount, frequency, intensity
Adequate, sufficient, indiscriminate

Abstract; Innovative; economical; consistent; sustainable; hierarchical

Alternative, variable, sustainable, steady, dramatic, sudden, gradual

Likely, possible, surely, definite, inevitable, impossible

List of transitional phrases

In general, overall

Agreement / Addition / Similarity
in the first place; not only ; but also; as a matter of fact ; in like manner; in addition; coupled with; in the same fashion / way; first, second, third; in the light of; not to mention; to say nothing of;equally important; by the same token; again; to; and; also; then; equally; identically; uniquely; like; as; too; moreover; as well as; together with; of course; likewise; comparatively; correspondingly; similarly; furthermore; additionally

Opposition / Limitation / Contradiction
although this may be true; in contrast; different from; of course …, but; on the other hand; on the contrary; at the same time; in spite of; even so / though; be that as it may; then again; above all; in reality; after all; but; (and) still; unlike; or; (and) yet; while; albeit; besides; as much as; even though; although; instead; whereas; despite; conversely; otherwise; however; rather; nevertheless; nonetheless; regardless; notwithstanding

Cause / Condition / Purpose
in the event that; granted (that); as / so long as; on (the) condition (that); for the purpose of; with this intention; with this in mind; in the hope that; to the end that; for fear that; in order to; seeing / being that; in view of; If; then; unless; when; whenever; while ; because of; as; since; while; lest; in case; provided that; given that; only / even if; so that; so as to; owing to; inasmuch as ; due to;

Examples / Support / Emphasis
in other words; to put it differently; for one thing; as an illustration; in this case; for this reason; to put it another way; that is to say; with attention to; by all means; important to realize; another key point; first thing to remember; most compelling evidence; must be remembered; point often overlooked; to point out; on the positive side; on the negative side; with this in mind; notably; including; like; to be sure; namely; chiefly; truly; indeed; certainly; surely; markedly; such as; especially; explicitly; specifically; expressly; surprisingly; frequently; significantly; particularly; in fact; in general; in particular; in detail; for example; for instance; to demonstrate; to emphasize; to repeat; to clarify; to explain; to enumerate;

Effect / Consequence / Result
as a result; under those circumstances; in that case; for this reason; in effect; for; thus; because the; then; hence; consequently; therefore; thereupon; forthwith; accordingly; henceforth;

Conclusion / Summary / Restatement
as can be seen; generally speaking; in the final analysis; all things considered; as shown above; in the long run; given these points; as has been noted; in a word; for the most part; after all; in fact; in summary; in conclusion; in short; in brief; in essence; to summarize; on balance; altogether; overall; ordinarily; usually; by and large; to sum up; on the whole; in any event; in either case; all in all; ; obviously; ultimately; definitely

Time / Chronology / Sequence
at the present time; from time to time; sooner or later; at the same time; up to the present time; to begin with; in due time; as soon as; as long as; in the meantime; in a moment; without delay; in the first place; all of a sudden; at this instant; first, second; immediately; quickly; finally; after; later; last; until; till; since; then; before; hence; since; when; once; about; next; now; formerly; suddenly; shortly; henceforth; whenever; eventually; meanwhile; further; during; in time; prior to; forthwith; straightaway; by the time; whenever; until now; now that; instantly; presently; occasionally;

Space / Location / Place
in the middle; to the left/right; in front of; on this side; in the distance; here and there; in the foreground; in the background; in the center of; adjacent to; opposite to; here; there; next; where; from; over; near; above; below; down; up; under; further; beyond; nearby; wherever; around; between; before; alongside; amid; among; beneath; beside; behind; across;

Avoiding “Very”

Instead of “Very”+
































































Best way to explain graphs:

1) Give an introduction. Explain the axis and unit of measurements.
2) Give an overall picture (observe first and last data points and key features)
3) Explain data by comparing and contrasting

Some links

Kanji Chart for N5

This kanji chart may be useful to Japanese language learner. Print it in a large paper and hang in your toilet!

Download pdf version of kanji chart here

Financial side of Akashi-Kaiko bridge

Akashi-Kaiko bridge is world’s longest suspension bridge (total length= 4km; suspended length=2km ). It is located in Japan connecting two main islands called Honsu and Sikoku. Recently I had chance to visit this bridge. Yes, as a civil engineer I can say this bridge is awesome, magnificent and beautiful. During construction, this bridge suffered a big earthquake that increased its span by about 0.80m than original length.  Thanks to Japanese high tech and safety measures, only 6 injury occurred to build this bridge and no one lost life during 10 years of construction works.

Besides its technical marvels, i was also interested in hidden parts – financial and economical side of this bridge.

Wikipedia mentions – “The total cost is estimated at 500 billion yen, and is expected to be repaid by charging drivers a toll to cross the bridge. The toll is 2,300 yen and the bridge is used by approximately 23,000 cars per day. At 2300 yen/car annual revenue would equal 19.5 billion yen. Given the interest expense on 500 billion yen, this bridge will never be repaid. But annual revenue is around 4% of investment, so with near zero interest rates in Japan, the bridge will pay for itself in 30 years, plus enable the growth of the overall economy in the region.”

I had doubt on the wiki’s statement. So, I did some research with authentic publications. After some study i found that, wiki is partially correct.

The bridge was build during the times when roads and trains were under Japanese government control. 67% of the investment for the construction of this bridge (and the related highway) was done by central government and rest were divided between 10 other local governments. Interestingly, all the government investments were at 0% interest rate.

In addition, loans were taken in the form of government guaranteed bond, private sector bond and pure loans. Similarly, Japan Railway also had small investment (although there is no train way in Akashi-Kaiko bridge, there is train ways in other bridge connecting two islands which same company operates, hence the loan).

How the investment will be paid back?
In 1990s, there was change in government policies and many government bodies were privatized. This resulted in complicated system of revenue collection and payment system for the bridge. Railway has to pay to the Highway company for leasing the train ways. In addition, the highway itself collects the toll. The total revenue is to be split up for loan payback and maintenance and operation of bridge.

Figure below shows the summary of payment method.

As wiki mentioned earlier, the cost of bridge is so huge that even with cumulative traffic tolls, the revenue will not be sufficient to payback  the normal interest rate. However, as most of the investment was done by government at 0% interest rate, the pay back period of this bridge is estimated to be about 45 years (including cost of highways).

The fact remains that investment by government in such massive projects becomes mandatory if we want to develop the society as a whole.

Just side note: Government of Japan has taken massive loans from World Bank for infrastructure development. However, most of the loans were re-payed in 1990s and now there is almost no loans left to be repaid.